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Way ensure Computer Security

Set up user accounts

One computer, many users, is a security disaster waiting to happen. Your files and data are your personal, private content and should be protected accordingly. To prevent other users from seeing or accessing your data, set up user accounts on your PC. A user account shows an individual’s specific data and not what is present on the entire system. It also specifies privileges on shared data, such as deleting/editing operations and what software can be installed on the machine.

This feature is especially useful when kids and adults use the same machine. What if your child accesses your important work files and deletes them by mistake? With a separate user account, he/she can only view certain files and cannot modify or delete them. Even if you are the sole user of the PC, set up a guest account, in case someone else needs to use the computer.

Secure your wireless network

With wired Internet access, there’s little risk of someone encroaching on your network. But wireless networks do have holes in their security, so as the owner of

Types of Computer Software

Types of Computer Software

System Software
System software coordinates the complete system hardware and provides an environment or platform for all the other types of software to work in. It is the most basic type of software in any computer system, which is essential for other programs, applications and indeed for the whole computer system to function.
(System software examples – Microsoft Windows XP, Mac OS, Linux, Windows Vista, Ubuntu, device drivers, etc.)

Application Software
Application software are those that help the user perform the tasks of his/her choice. They are non-essential software which are installed and run depending upon the requirements, in the environment provided by the system software.
(Application software examples – MS Office, OpenOffice, Media Players, MS Access, educational software, media development software, Antivirus software, etc. )

Programming Software
Programming software are used to write, test, debug and develop other software programs and applications. The various programming language editors such as Eclipse- a Java language editor, come under this category. They are used for creating both the system as well as application software.
(Programming software examples – Turbo C, Xilinx, Kiel, compilers, debuggers, Integrated Development Environment


So what are supercomputers? They work on the principle of doing large amounts of work in minimum time. Supercomputers are capable of performing operations in minutes and seconds, that would take a team of even high-end machines, days or weeks or more realistically, months to perform. They are also super in terms of maintenance and need large rooms all to themselves, along with extremely cool temperature surroundings. They consume a lot of power and have a very high processing speed, due to their large number of microprocessors. Supercomputers are used in situations, where a large amount of data needs to be processed in a small time span, with rendering and modeling operations performed simultaneously.


Supercomputers can be used to model or render the working of the nervous system or brain of an organism. In 2006, the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne of Switzerland used a supercomputer to render a part of a rat’s brain, to understand how neurons transmit and generate messages in this type of organism. However, the computer was only capable of demonstrating the working of a small area of the

Types of Databases

Analytical Databases
Analytical databases are read-only type of databases. These can be mostly seen online, on the web; wherein you can see a collection of items present, but you cannot modify them. You can consider this to be like inventory catalogs. The best instance would be any online shopping site that jots down the available products and data about them. The information stored in analytical databases is mostly extracted from operation databases or external databases. This is mostly screened and edited data which is often used by the management of the organization. It is expressed as a summary of the organization’s or employee’s performance or sales, marketing records, etc. The main purpose of an analytical database is to allow the user to analyze the data, depending on which a management policy can be formulated.

Relational Databases
It is a digital database that stores data into tables in the form of rows and columns. Each row has a unique key (its identity, mostly primary key). This helps linking one table to another (which is referred as foreign key). In general, each entity has a table―the row being its instance, and the columns are the values attributed to the instances. In

Way to Connect a Laptop to a TV

Using RCA Connector
The RCA standard was originally designed for transmitting analog audio and composite video signals between devices such televisions, satellites receivers, VCRs, etc. It comprises three separate ports and cables: the red and white colored cable stand for right and left analog audio respectively. The yellow cable is used for composite video. Most laptops and computers do not have the RCA connection feature. But you can use an RCA to S-video converter for getting the RCA connector hooked onto your computer. The picture quality that you will get in this technology, compared to the other options out there, is acceptable at best.

Using S-Video Connectors
S-Video or Super Video is another method of connecting the laptop to a TV. Though not very good, this technology will still give you a sharper picture quality as compared to composite video. It is also one of the most feasible methods, as the S-Video port is available in almost all televisions.

The S-Video connector-cable is usually bundled along with a laptop. If not, then you will have to purchase it separately. These cables may have either a 4-pin or a 7-pin connector. If the number of pins on your computer and those

Types of Computer Motherboards

There are different ways to classify motherboards, which are:

Classification Based on Assembly

Integrated Processors
Video, graphics, sound… such facilities involve components. Peripheral device slots, serial parallel ports and input output ports are other physical components or parts that are involved in the working of a computer. When such components are provided for by the motherboard, i.e. they are built into the motherboard, the motherboard is called integrated.

For example, to make a computer capable of connecting to networks, a network card is integrated onto the motherboard itself. So you do not need to buy a network card. This sort of motherboard allows for better air flow within the computer’s case. Integrated motherboards cost less to make but their downside is that, if even one component on the motherboard fails, the entire board might have to be replaced. Repairing or replacing this sort of motherboard, is expensive.

Non-integrated Processors
With non-integrated motherboards, electronic components and parts are fitted individually and as needed. Input output ports, connectors, RAM etc. are fixed to the motherboard using expansion slots. So you can add one or more components as needed. This allows for greater customization and freedom in designing a PC. Gamers, for example, could fix

The Computer Output Devices

Output devices of computer are types of peripheral hardware connected to the computer either using cables or over a wireless network. An output given by the computer can be in the form of a display on the screen or a printed document or a song that is played. Immaterial of whether you have desktop computers, laptop computers or supercomputers, you will require at least one output device.


A monitor is also called video display terminal (VDT). The users can view the visual display of the processed data on the monitor. Computer monitors come in a variety of screen sizes and not to forget, visual resolutions. All monitors have a video card, which processes the data into images, to be eventually displayed. Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) and flat panel displays are the two types of monitors. CRTs are cheaper, and have good viewing angle. They are also bulkier and consume more power. On the other hand, the flat panel displays have no magnetic interference and lighter. They are also costlier.


Printer is an external hardware device, which takes processed data from the computer to generate a hard copy of the same. After the monitors, printers are the most used peripherals of

7 Ethical Codes of Computer

The term ‘ethics’ refers to the set of standards and rules that one is expected to follow. They are designed to help us regulate our conduct in a group of individuals or a society. Respect for one another, refraining from violence, treating everyone with civility are a few of the common ethics that we all follow try to follow everyday.

In modern times, computers and Internet have become a common medium for interacting and socializing. They allow us to put forward our opinions and suggestions, communicate with other users, and even carry out a number of our entertainment and work-related activities. For smooth functioning and for avoiding conflicts, it is essential that the users perform all these activities in an ethical manner wherein, they communicate and interact within the boundaries of a given set of guidelines and rules.

However, since computers and the Internet are accessible to anyone these days there is no way to check what kind of people are actually using it. Also, many of the rules relating to computer and Internet usage, are not defined in the older systems of laws that many of us are familiar with. Though today there exits an organized structure of laws

Tips for Choosing Wireless Keyboard and Mouse

When choosing a wireless keyboard and mouse, it would be better to buy them as a bundle, because it will be a little cheaper that way. Of course, please remember that these are slightly more expensive because of the technology used to transfer the signal to the computer. Infra red and Bluetooth are the two main technologies used to transfer signals to the computer; Bluetooth is much more expensive than infra red.

Types of Wireless Keyboards

  • Split Key (Ergonomic) Keyboard
    If you want comfortable typing, then this is the keyboard for you. This is because the keys on this keyboard are split into two separate sections that are slightly angled towards each other. This feature allows your arms to maintain a natural position while typing, which, in turn, reduces the tension in your shoulders and arms.
  • Regular Keyboard
    This keyboard is the regular computer keyboard, as we know it. Of course, there are new versions that are doing the rounds, for instance the ones with multimedia and Internet shortcut keys.

Types of Wireless Mouse

  • Wheel Mouse
    This term is used to refer to the regular mouse that has a wheel and is suitable for most needs.
  • Optical Mouse

History And Working of Linux

A Brief History

Unix was the third operating system to CTSS, the first one followed by MULTICS. A team of programmers led by Prof. Fernando J. Corbato at the MIT Computation Center, wrote the CTSS, the first operating system supporting the concept of time-sharing. AT&T started working on the MULTICS operating system but had to leave the project as they were failing to meet deadlines. Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and Brian Kernighan at Bell Labs, used the ideas on the MULTICS project to develop the first version of Unix.

MINIX was a Unix-like system released by Andrew Tenenbaum. The source code was made available to the users but there were restrictions on the modification and distribution of the software. On August 25, 1991, Linus Torvalds, a second year computer engineering student studying in the University of Helsinki made an announcement that he was going to write an operating system. With an intent to replace MINIX, Torvalds started writing the Linux kernel. With this announcement of Torvalds, a success story had begun! Linux was previously dependent on the MINIX user space but with the introduction of the GNU GPL, the GNU developers worked towards the integration of Linux and the GNU

Way to Share Files Between Computers

File sharing in a network is one of the important reason why the computers are connected. But many of us who have recently setup a network, are often unable or find it difficult to share the data. In other words, the hardware part is done, the computers are connected, but how to get the network into action? Sharing files between computers is not a difficult task. Let us go through various considerations and steps that are required to undertake this task.


Here it is assumed that you have already completed the hardware part for creating your network. Now, let us proceed to the other prerequisites. You need to first consider if the IP address in all the systems is set up in the same scheme. Each IP address should be different from the other, but the scheme should be same. It implies that, the IP address of the computers in a network should be in the same class. It has basically four classes: Class A, B, C, and D. In general, Class C is the most used scheme for the local area networks or home networks. It will be something like 192.168.254.x, where x can be any number. The

How to Increase Download Speeds

Internet Connection
The first thing that you need to take into consideration is the Internet connection. If you do not have broadband Internet, then you should get it, since it is much faster than the old dial-up Internet connection. If you are already on an active cable connection, ask your Internet Service Provider (ISP) about more advanced options. The Internet speed is obviously the most vital thing; the faster it is, the better will be your download speed.

Running Programs
Shut down all the programs and applications that are running in the background, while you are downloading. This will considerably speed up the entire process. It is also advisable to set the downloads for a particular time, when you are not working on your PC; it means that there are no programs running in the background that can slow down the speed.

Antivirus Software
It will carry out regular updates and security scans. While these processes are going on, the entire machine will run much slower than normal. This is something that is unavoidable, so you must ensure that your downloads and scans are not functioning at the same time.

Prioritize Downloads
If you are downloading too many files at the

Application Server Vs. Web Server

What is an Application Server?

An application server is a software framework, which is dedicated to the efficient execution of programs, routines, or scripts to support the construction of various applications. This term was originally used to describe client-server applications and servers, which ran SQL services and middleware servers, so as to be able to differentiate them from file servers. It was later that the term came to be used in the context of web applications. However, it has evolved into a more comprehensive service layer. An application server is nothing but a set of components, which are accessible to the software developer through an API defined by the platform itself. In web applications, these components are often in the same machine as the web server as its main job is to support the construction of dynamic pages. However, now they do not just target the generation of web pages, they also implement services like clustering, fail-over, and load balancing. Due to this, developers can focus their energies on implementing business logic.

What is a Web Server?

A web server is a computer program which delivers content, like web pages, using the Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP), over the World Wide

Way to Compress a File

He needs to open the files and folders in the compression software, and then extract them to convert them to their original format. Even if the files are compressed into a smaller size, their quality remains the same. File compression is definitely a useful way to save space. There are many software available in the market which are specially intended to be used for the purpose of compressing files. Below are some software and methods used for this purpose.

Compressing a File Using WinZip

WinZip is considered the best file compression tool, and is used by a majority of people all over the world. Its trial version can be downloaded from the Internet for free. It certainly does the job in an efficient manner. It compresses the files selected, and puts them together in a single file which is known as a .zip file. This file is way smaller in size than the original files’ size, and takes up less memory space. If you then want to view the contents in the file, you need to run the WinZip software and unzip or extract the files. This process may sound confusing at first, but it is really a very simple

The Benefits of using Video Submission Software

Nobody can deny the value of advertising as a marketing tool. The advertisements that are shown on the TV channels are effective in boosting sales figures. The same trick is being repeated over the Internet to reach the target audience and that too, at cheaper rates. Videos that are used to market the products of small businesses, give them an opportunity to compete with the big companies.

How do you post your videos on the Internet? Do you outsource the task to a video submission service, or access each website, that you are interested in, manually, to post the video, or use a software that does the task automatically? Here are the benefits of choosing the third option.

Video Marketing
Video marketing involves making catchy videos for Internet users. However, posting these videos on the frequently visited video submission sites, such as the social bookmarking sites, big video sharing networks, podcast directories, blogs, and major article directories, is a mechanical and time-consuming task.

Video submission software programs, that are available in the market, are not only fully capable of automating this task, but they can speed up the process tremendously. A good video submission tool should allow you to submit your

Uses of Old Computers

Good Uses of Old Computers

Personal Entertainment System
This is probably considered to be the most common choice of users planning to purchase a new computer. If the PC is in running condition and has a decent hard drive space, you can use it as a personalized entertainment console. You can install software for playing audio files, a DVD drive, a powerful speaker system, and other devices in a typical entertainment system. You can even arrange web access on this system, in case you want to play online radio or watch movies.

File Database
If you are a user with several computing devices, you can create a file database by using the old system. You simply have to increase the hard drive space of the old computer, establish a wired or wireless connection by using a Network-attached Storage (NAS) device, and start accessing the database through your personal laptop. With this, you can retrieve data when you need it, without having it stored on the hard drive of your new computer.

Sell, Recycle or Donate
If you do not want to use the old system for any purpose, you can make some money by selling it online. There are many sites

Advantages of Computers

Because of the several computer advantages, it has become an important household item. Be it office, home, or school, it has become an indispensable device for us. A computer operated by an individual without any specific computer operator is called a personal computer (PC). A PC can be a desktop or a laptop computer, and can be used at home or at office. As per the requirement of the user, software is installed in a PC.

One can write more effectively by means of a computer. A computer allows the user to create documents, edit, print, and store them so that they can be retrieved later.

  • There are tools like spelling and grammar checker, thesaurus and dictionary, installed in the computer. Thus, it takes less time to proofread a written document
  • Also, there is no need to open up a dictionary book to look for meanings of words.
  • Typing is much faster than writing on a paper.
  • If there is a need for reorganizing the sentences or paragraphs, one can cut and paste and make the necessary changes.

Using a computer, one can remain connected to the world through the Internet. Internet is a network of computers that

Types of Computer Threats

The classification of the types of information security threats is made on the way the information in the system is compromised upon. There are the passive threats and the active threats. The passive threats are very difficult to detect and equally difficult to prevent as well. Then there are the active threats. Since these threats continue to make changes to the system, they are easy to find out and fix as well.

Virus: The most common of the types of cyber threats are the viruses. They infect different files on the computer network or on the stand alone systems. Most people fall prey to the viruses, as they trick the person into taking some action, like clicking on a malicious link, downloading a malicious file, etc. It is from these links and files, that the virus is transmitted to the computer. There are also cases of the viruses been a part of an email attachment, which may be downloaded from the internet. In some cases, the viruses can also spread through infected portable data storage as well. Hence, it is important to have an antivirus on the system, which can not only detect the virus, but be able to

Way to Overcome Computer Rage

Rage or anger caused by computer trouble, frustrates workers, causes interruption in the work schedule, ultimately leading to deadlines not being met, which can further anger clients, and result in financial damages. Let us see how to tackle this problem.

● Always keep a backup of all your files. Store files online or transfer all necessary data onto CDs and DVDs. So in the event of a system crash, you can always retrieve your files even if the hard drive has to be formatted.
● Keep your cool. If you encounter an unexpected system error, do not use swear words or do something like hitting and smashing your PC that could actually harm the hardware. This will do you no good. You could physically hurt yourself and your actions may also cause monetary loss. Instead, get up, and walk away. Breathe deeply. Splash cool water on your face. Take a stroll, have a chat with your coworkers and friends and return only after you feel you have calmed down. You may even realize that you do not feel so frustrated after all. Try to look at things from a different perspective. You may be surprised to find the solution

Methods of Computer Security

They are the easiest and most common authentication processes that are used, not only on desktop computers, but also at the network level. However, certain rules should be followed, while setting a password for your computer or network. Do not use easily predictable words; they don’t even require a hacker to access the system through your account. Use passwords that are unpredictable. Set long ones, and use numbers and special characters for this aspect. Remember your passwords; don’t write them down anywhere. Hackers use various tools to know your passwords, but a long one with a number of special characters, will indeed gives them a lot of trouble.

Digital Certificates
Using a certain algorithm, computer administrators combine your personal details with other user credentials to generate a public key. This key or digital certificate, is used for the authentication purpose in the network.

Smart Cards
They are among the very few hardware authentication processes, in which a simple card with an embedded circuitry is used for accessing the network. Each valid card for a particular network, when inserted into a particular circuitry, gives an output, which decides whether you will be allowed to enter into the network or not.