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Category Archives: Computer

Application Server Vs. Web Server

What is an Application Server?

An application server is a software framework, which is dedicated to the efficient execution of programs, routines, or scripts to support the construction of various applications. This term was originally used to describe client-server applications and servers, which ran SQL services and middleware servers, so as to be able to differentiate them from file servers. It was later that the term came to be used in the context of web applications. However, it has evolved into a more comprehensive service layer. An application server is nothing but a set of components, which are accessible to the software developer through an API defined by the platform itself. In web applications, these components are often in the same machine as the web server as its main job is to support the construction of dynamic pages. However, now they do not just target the generation of web pages, they also implement services like clustering, fail-over, and load balancing. Due to this, developers can focus their energies on implementing business logic.

What is a Web Server?

A web server is a computer program which delivers content, like web pages, using the Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP), over the World Wide Web. The term may also stand for a computer or a virtual machine, which runs a program. The primary objective of a web server is to deliver web pages to clients. Such a delivery consists of HTML documents or any additional content which may be included in the document, like images, style sheets, and JavaScript. The communication is initiated by the client, commonly called a web browser or web crawler. By making request for a specific bit of information using HTTP, the request is met with a response by the server and the content is sent over. In case of a problem, an error message is sent back. The server also receives content from clients. Such a feature is often used for submitting web forms and for uploading files.

Application Server Vs. Web Server

Like there is confusion about application software and system software, there is also confusion about web servers and application servers. The basic difference between these is that the web server serves pages for viewing in a web browser, whereas an application server gives the required methods that can be called by client applications. In other words, HTTP requests are handled by web servers and business logic is served to application programs through a number of protocols by the application server. In an application server, a client can use GUI’s and web servers, whereas in web servers the client can use HTML or HTTP. If any functionality is to be added, an application adds the same, however, the same is not the case with web servers.

Way to Compress a File

He needs to open the files and folders in the compression software, and then extract them to convert them to their original format. Even if the files are compressed into a smaller size, their quality remains the same. File compression is definitely a useful way to save space. There are many software available in the market which are specially intended to be used for the purpose of compressing files. Below are some software and methods used for this purpose.

Compressing a File Using WinZip

WinZip is considered the best file compression tool, and is used by a majority of people all over the world. Its trial version can be downloaded from the Internet for free. It certainly does the job in an efficient manner. It compresses the files selected, and puts them together in a single file which is known as a .zip file. This file is way smaller in size than the original files’ size, and takes up less memory space. If you then want to view the contents in the file, you need to run the WinZip software and unzip or extract the files. This process may sound confusing at first, but it is really a very simple task.

Run the WinZip application, and select the ‘New’ icon which is at the upper left hand corner of the application window. Choose a folder or a drive where you would prefer to save the .zip file. You will have to name the compressed file before adding files to the archive. After naming the file, a new window will appear that will allow you to add a file that you want to compress. For adding multiple files, you need to click on the ‘add’ icon. As you keep adding multiple files, the files are compressed and stored in the folder which you named for storing compressed files. When all the selected files have been compressed, you may click on ‘File’ option, and select ‘close archive’.

Compressing a File Using WinRAR

WinRAR is also a very famous tool used for file compression. You can download its trial version from the Internet. Even if the trial period expires, you can still use it without any issues, but you will get a smaller window notifying that the trial period has expired. To start with the file compression process, run the WinRAR application and click on the ‘Add’ icon which is on the top left of the application window. Name the file to store compressed files, and select the compression format. It is recommended that you choose the .rar format, as its compression rate is much higher than the .zip format. After selecting the format, click on the ‘File’ menu and add the files you want to compress. Press the ‘OK’ button to start the compression process. A rar extractor can be used to retrieve the files. In this way you can make large-sized files into smaller-sized ones without affecting the original quality.

Types of Computer Software

Types of Computer Software

System Software
System software coordinates the complete system hardware and provides an environment or platform for all the other types of software to work in. It is the most basic type of software in any computer system, which is essential for other programs, applications and indeed for the whole computer system to function.
(System software examples – Microsoft Windows XP, Mac OS, Linux, Windows Vista, Ubuntu, device drivers, etc.)

Application Software
Application software are those that help the user perform the tasks of his/her choice. They are non-essential software which are installed and run depending upon the requirements, in the environment provided by the system software.
(Application software examples – MS Office, OpenOffice, Media Players, MS Access, educational software, media development software, Antivirus software, etc. )

Programming Software
Programming software are used to write, test, debug and develop other software programs and applications. The various programming language editors such as Eclipse- a Java language editor, come under this category. They are used for creating both the system as well as application software.
(Programming software examples – Turbo C, Xilinx, Kiel, compilers, debuggers, Integrated Development Environment (IDE), etc.).

Sub-types of Computer Software

Apart from the above major types of software, there are many other sub-types such as the ones mentioned below.

Freeware- Freeware are a type of software that anyone can download from the Internet and use for free.
(Examples – Google Talk, Yahoo Messenger, uTorrent, etc.)

Shareware- Shareware are usually distributed for free on a trial basis. It can be shared without violation of any laws. They usually stop working or prompt the user to purchase the full version, once the trial period expires.
(Examples – BearShare, Kazaa, Winzip, etc.)

Registry Cleaners- When you install a lot of software, games, etc., your computer’s registry gets clogged. Registry cleaners are used to clean up or delete all the invalid registry entries which has the benefit of speeding up your computer.
(Examples- TuneUp Utilities, Eusing, etc.)

Content Control Software- These software allow you to control the content that can be accessed by a user on a computer. They are mostly used for restricting access over the Internet.
(Example- K9 Web Protection, PGSurfer, etc.)

Project Management Software- As its name suggests, project management software is a software package that helps multiple users to work on a project simultaneously. It allows them to schedule events, network with the other users, allocate resources, etc.
(Example- Microsoft Office Project Server, HyperOffice, 24SevenOffice, etc.)

Utility Software- They are usually small programs that help in the management of the hardware and the application software, installed on a computer.
(Example- Disk defragmenters, Disk cleaners, etc.)

Open Source Software- This is a type of software the source code for which is available to all users (open). As such, anyone can make changes to it and release their own new version.
(Example- Android OS, OpenOffice, etc.)

Browsers- Browsers are software that let you surf or browse the Internet.
(Example- Internet Explorer, Safari, Mozilla Firefox, etc.)

With constant advancements in the field of software engineering, several new software and applications are being developed every day. Hence, the list provided above shouldn’t be considered definitive, as in the coming years, many more newer types of software would have been developed.

The Benefits of using Video Submission Software

Nobody can deny the value of advertising as a marketing tool. The advertisements that are shown on the TV channels are effective in boosting sales figures. The same trick is being repeated over the Internet to reach the target audience and that too, at cheaper rates. Videos that are used to market the products of small businesses, give them an opportunity to compete with the big companies.

How do you post your videos on the Internet? Do you outsource the task to a video submission service, or access each website, that you are interested in, manually, to post the video, or use a software that does the task automatically? Here are the benefits of choosing the third option.

Video Marketing
Video marketing involves making catchy videos for Internet users. However, posting these videos on the frequently visited video submission sites, such as the social bookmarking sites, big video sharing networks, podcast directories, blogs, and major article directories, is a mechanical and time-consuming task.

Video submission software programs, that are available in the market, are not only fully capable of automating this task, but they can speed up the process tremendously. A good video submission tool should allow you to submit your video content to as many as 30 video directories, by uploading it only once. This saves, literally, number of hours, which an individual would require for manual uploading.

Video Editing
In addition, these tools allow the users to tinker with their videos to make them more presentable and effective. By using interfaces provided by the submission software, you can edit your video to present essential information, add captions to bring the features of products to the notice of the viewers, and use picture slides to create a video.

SEO
Many of these submission tools let you optimize your video, so as to make it easy for the search engines to find it. A video, well-optimized, with meta tags, titles, and descriptions can easily bring it to the notice of search engines. A video, fulfilling the optimization criteria of the search engines, has a fat chance of ranking on the first page. This improves the chances of website visitors accessing the video. Isn’t it exactly what a business using video marketing to boost the sales figures of a product wants?

Uses of Old Computers

Good Uses of Old Computers

Personal Entertainment System
This is probably considered to be the most common choice of users planning to purchase a new computer. If the PC is in running condition and has a decent hard drive space, you can use it as a personalized entertainment console. You can install software for playing audio files, a DVD drive, a powerful speaker system, and other devices in a typical entertainment system. You can even arrange web access on this system, in case you want to play online radio or watch movies.

File Database
If you are a user with several computing devices, you can create a file database by using the old system. You simply have to increase the hard drive space of the old computer, establish a wired or wireless connection by using a Network-attached Storage (NAS) device, and start accessing the database through your personal laptop. With this, you can retrieve data when you need it, without having it stored on the hard drive of your new computer.

Sell, Recycle or Donate
If you do not want to use the old system for any purpose, you can make some money by selling it online. There are many sites that you can use like eBay or Craigslist where you can get good deals. Now this applies to a PC which is in working condition. Selling is one of the uses of an old computer in the sense that you can use it to make some money. Recycling is another way of computer disposal. There are recycling programs whereby you can make money by recycling your old computer. Now, isn’t that a use for old computers? Or donate. Yes, donating your old computer to someone in need of it, is a great way of putting it to good use.

External Hard Disk
In case most parts of your computer have become dysfunctional but the hard drive is still worth using, you can consider using the computer as a means of external storage. You can use your old computer as your ‘customized’ external hard disk. You will need to spend a few bucks on the USB and adapters though.

Trial and Error
Another option for using an old computer is to set it up as a ‘trial and error’ machine. If you do not want to try out various third-party software and hardware on your new laptop, you can certainly use the old system. You can try out different applications, new operating systems, and similar utilities. You can even hand over the system to your children for understanding the basics of computing by installing educational software, typing practice programs, memory games, etc.

Television and Video Recorder
If the CRT monitor has no display problems, you can use it uniquely. You can make a TV or program recorder out of it. Note that you will need some devices for doing so, like an external TV tuner card and an aerial cable. Using the software that comes along with the TV tuner, you can even record TV shows. This is surely the best way an old CRT monitor can be used.

Backup and Occasional Use
Your old computer can even serve as a backup in case of emergencies, when you don’t have your laptop. Maybe you need to send an important email or create a presentation. Your guests may want to use a computer, which is when you can have them use the old one. In this case though, you will have to ensure that the computer is in working condition, and that it at least performs its basic functions.

Video Game Station
Instead of giving your system in scrap, it is a good idea to upgrade it and use it as a home gaming console. Instead of loading and playing games on your laptop, you can use your old PC for this kind of entertainment. With just a graphics card and some video and audio drivers, you can start using the gaming system. If possible, have web access ready for enjoying online games. With this you can separate gaming and entertainment from personal data and software you work on.

These are believed to be the best ways of using old computers. There are many other creative ways such as using the computer case as a letter box at the gate, an office coffee pot, a resting place for your pet; or simply using the mouse as a toothbrush holder. You can be as creative as your want with using old computer parts.

Advantages of Computers

Because of the several computer advantages, it has become an important household item. Be it office, home, or school, it has become an indispensable device for us. A computer operated by an individual without any specific computer operator is called a personal computer (PC). A PC can be a desktop or a laptop computer, and can be used at home or at office. As per the requirement of the user, software is installed in a PC.

One can write more effectively by means of a computer. A computer allows the user to create documents, edit, print, and store them so that they can be retrieved later.

  • There are tools like spelling and grammar checker, thesaurus and dictionary, installed in the computer. Thus, it takes less time to proofread a written document
  • Also, there is no need to open up a dictionary book to look for meanings of words.
  • Typing is much faster than writing on a paper.
  • If there is a need for reorganizing the sentences or paragraphs, one can cut and paste and make the necessary changes.

Using a computer, one can remain connected to the world through the Internet. Internet is a network of computers that communicate via the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP).

  • The World Wide Web (WWW) or simply web is a huge resource of information that can be accessed via the Internet.
  • To mention a few of the resources, there are electronic mail (e-mail), file transferring and sharing, online chat, and gaming. The Internet allows people from around the world to share knowledge, ideas, and experiences in any field.
  • E-mail is a method of communication used globally, between friends, colleagues, business partners, and so on.
  • The electronic mail is provided with a system of creating, storing, and forwarding mails.
  • It may consist of text messages with attachments of audio-visual clips. One can also download or upload files using the Internet.
  • There are also facilities like online chatting available on the Internet. As compared to telephonic conversation, both e-mail and online chat are cost saving.
  • Online gaming is another important resource of the WWW. Many online games are available, which are of common interest for any age group.

Right from banking to investment, a user can accomplish the task by sitting within the comfort zone of his/her home.

  • With this, one no longer needs to stand in the line for money withdrawing, depositing, or conducting other transactions. The same facility is available for making investments.
  • In addition, one can read current news, check weather conditions, plan vacations, and make hotel and travel reservations, find out about diseases and treatment methods, learn about specific countries and their cultures, seek jobs, etc. over the Internet.
  • If a computer has Internet connection facility, one can shop and that too in discounted rates. The purchased products will be delivered to the provided address, thus saving both time and money.

Nowadays, computers are widely used for education and training purposes.

  • In schools, computer education has been made compulsory to spread awareness about computers. As a matter of fact, computers have become a learning tool for children.
  • Indeed, a student can use the PC as a storage system for many books. Also, there are many universities that provide online degrees, which are very advantageous for those people staying in remote areas and for the disabled. In fact, online education is one of the most flexible and convenient forms of learning.
  • One can take the benefit of such online degree programs staying at home without the need of relocation.
  • Computers are also used for training purposes. Many companies use them to train their staff.

However, in spite of the many advantages of computers, there are some disadvantages that cannot be ignored. First and foremost, sitting for long hours in front of the PC will affect one’s eyes and hamper his activity level. The easy access to information via Internet has made students lazy in terms of their education since they are able to download information without exploring their topic of research. They also use computers for mathematical tables and calculations without actually solving the problems. Also, it is important for parents to keep a check on the browsing habits of their children as some websites are not meant for their viewing. Other disadvantages include identity theft and virus threat. Computers viruses are harmful to the systems and can be transferred from one computer system to another.

Types of Computer Threats

The classification of the types of information security threats is made on the way the information in the system is compromised upon. There are the passive threats and the active threats. The passive threats are very difficult to detect and equally difficult to prevent as well. Then there are the active threats. Since these threats continue to make changes to the system, they are easy to find out and fix as well.

Virus: The most common of the types of cyber threats are the viruses. They infect different files on the computer network or on the stand alone systems. Most people fall prey to the viruses, as they trick the person into taking some action, like clicking on a malicious link, downloading a malicious file, etc. It is from these links and files, that the virus is transmitted to the computer. There are also cases of the viruses been a part of an email attachment, which may be downloaded from the internet. In some cases, the viruses can also spread through infected portable data storage as well. Hence, it is important to have an antivirus on the system, which can not only detect the virus, but be able to get rid of them as well.

Worms: The other common types of internet security threats are the worms. They are actually malicious programs, which take advantage of the weaknesses in the operating system. Like the worms in real life crawl to move from one place to another, similarly the worms in the cyber world also spread from one computer to another and from one network to another. The most prominent feature of the worms is that they are able to spread at very high rates, which can lead the system being at risk of crashing. There is a type of worm, called net worm. These worms replicates itself by sending complete and independent copes of itself over a network, thereby infecting almost all the systems on the said network.

Trojan: This is a different type of computer virus, which is disguised under the garbs of a friend. The Trojans derive their name from the legend. They make their way into the software, which may not be noticed. It is often seen, that the Trojans are a part of the different attachments in emails or download links. In some cases making a visit to certain web pages also puts the computer system at risk.

Spyware: Spyware as the name suggests spy on the network and the computer system. They may be downloaded unintentionally from different websites, email messages or instant messages. In some cases, they may also make their way through different direct file sharing connection. In some cases, clicking on ‘Accept User License Agreement’, can also put the computer at risk.

Rootkits: The job of the rootkits is to give cover to the hackers. The best or the worst part about rootkits is that they are able to hide themselves from the antivirus software as well, due to which the user is not aware that a rootkit is present on the system. This helps the hacker and he is able to spread malware on the system. Therefore, it is important that one opts for antivirus, which also has a rootkit scanner, which will be able to detect the invasion.

Riskware: They are dangerous applications, who often become a part of software applications. They are often seen as a part of development environment for malicious programs and spread to the software applications. In some cases, these applications can also be used by hackers as additional components to gain access in the network.

Adware: The recent addition to the list of computer threats are the adware. They are actually advertising supported software. It is not uncommon to see different advertisements or pop ups coming up on the computer, when certain applications are being used. They may not pose a lot of threat, but often lower the speed of the computers. There are chances that the computer system may become unstable because of these adware.

Cookies: When we visit a website, there are files due to which the website is able to remember the details of the computer. They are more of a threat to confidentiality as opposed to the data on the computer. In most cases, cookies may be stored on the computer without the consent of the user and data may be stored on them, which is passed back to the website server the next time, one visits the website. The data gathered may be sold to third parties and depending on the interests, which may lead to different advertisements flashing on the screen.

Phishing: Often people appear to get emails from trustworthy organizations, like banks. In some cases, the emails may come from bogus sites, which may resemble the original site or it may superimposes a bogus pop up, due to which confidential data is gathered. They are often a part of different scamming activities and often poses to the financial threats.

Way to Overcome Computer Rage

Rage or anger caused by computer trouble, frustrates workers, causes interruption in the work schedule, ultimately leading to deadlines not being met, which can further anger clients, and result in financial damages. Let us see how to tackle this problem.

● Always keep a backup of all your files. Store files online or transfer all necessary data onto CDs and DVDs. So in the event of a system crash, you can always retrieve your files even if the hard drive has to be formatted.
● Keep your cool. If you encounter an unexpected system error, do not use swear words or do something like hitting and smashing your PC that could actually harm the hardware. This will do you no good. You could physically hurt yourself and your actions may also cause monetary loss. Instead, get up, and walk away. Breathe deeply. Splash cool water on your face. Take a stroll, have a chat with your coworkers and friends and return only after you feel you have calmed down. You may even realize that you do not feel so frustrated after all. Try to look at things from a different perspective. You may be surprised to find the solution was right there in front of you, but you did not realize it because your mind was so clouded with anger.
● Call for help. Make a call to the tech support or IT help-desk of your organization, and ask them to come and have a look at your PC. If you are home, ask for help from a friend or an acquaintance who is good at troubleshooting such problems, or take your laptop to the store to get it repaired or call a tech support company and hire their services.
● Do not shout and express your anger at the people around you. It is not their fault that your computer crashed. If you have the tech support working on your problem, make use of the free time by completing unfinished paperwork, making urgent calls, or just chatting up with a coworker. Diverting your mind from the problem at hand can sometimes be beneficial. It will help you to think clearly and logically.
● If you face the same problem regularly, get to know the correct debugging and troubleshooting techniques. A little IT knowledge will always prove helpful, and you could even solve the problem yourself, instead of waiting for the tech support to show up.

With computers being used in practically every industry, hardware and software troubles are bound to be on the rise. It’s up to you to keep a calm mind and not get perturbed by computer problems. Do not let computer rage control you. Learn how to control it so it does not interfere with your day-to-day activities.

Methods of Computer Security

Passwords
They are the easiest and most common authentication processes that are used, not only on desktop computers, but also at the network level. However, certain rules should be followed, while setting a password for your computer or network. Do not use easily predictable words; they don’t even require a hacker to access the system through your account. Use passwords that are unpredictable. Set long ones, and use numbers and special characters for this aspect. Remember your passwords; don’t write them down anywhere. Hackers use various tools to know your passwords, but a long one with a number of special characters, will indeed gives them a lot of trouble.

Digital Certificates
Using a certain algorithm, computer administrators combine your personal details with other user credentials to generate a public key. This key or digital certificate, is used for the authentication purpose in the network.

Smart Cards
They are among the very few hardware authentication processes, in which a simple card with an embedded circuitry is used for accessing the network. Each valid card for a particular network, when inserted into a particular circuitry, gives an output, which decides whether you will be allowed to enter into the network or not. The programming logic inserted into each card is different, and it’s one of the safest methods of authentication.

Fingerprint Detection
Almost available in all laptops that are manufactured today, fingerprint detection is another safe method of computer security authentication.

Face Recognition Systems
Many people working in the field of security have questioned their user-friendly nature, and the security provided by them. Calculations of dimensions of the face are done by the computer, and the logic used in doing so, has been often found to be error-prone.

Biometrics
It is often considered as a far more secure way of authentication, than passwords or digital certificates. It is even safer than smart cards, which may be misplaced. The physical and behavioral traits of a person are taken into consideration for this type of authentication.

Captcha Keys
In this process, it is verified whether a human or a computer bot has logged into the system. Captcha keys are randomly generated alphabets and numbers, which are presented in such a form that only a human can recognize it.

Now, let’s talk about the normal computer security authentication processes that we can install (or use) at the local level. Setting up a BIOS password for your computer may not be the ultimate security option. Removing the BIOS battery from the computer system for 30 seconds, deactivates this security feature. Setting up the administrator password is of utmost necessity. If this is not set, then any user can log into the computer, irrespective of the fact whether he has an account in that system or not.

Supercomputers

So what are supercomputers? They work on the principle of doing large amounts of work in minimum time. Supercomputers are capable of performing operations in minutes and seconds, that would take a team of even high-end machines, days or weeks or more realistically, months to perform. They are also super in terms of maintenance and need large rooms all to themselves, along with extremely cool temperature surroundings. They consume a lot of power and have a very high processing speed, due to their large number of microprocessors. Supercomputers are used in situations, where a large amount of data needs to be processed in a small time span, with rendering and modeling operations performed simultaneously.

Biology

Supercomputers can be used to model or render the working of the nervous system or brain of an organism. In 2006, the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne of Switzerland used a supercomputer to render a part of a rat’s brain, to understand how neurons transmit and generate messages in this type of organism. However, the computer was only capable of demonstrating the working of a small area of the brain. Nevertheless it was a breakthrough.
In 2009, a joint venture by IBM and Stanford University modeled the cortex of a cat using the Blue Gene/IP supercomputer. They simulated 1% of a human brain’s functioning in the same year. Within the next 10 years, a complete rendering and simulation of how the human brain works, will be shown by a supercomputer. Why model a brain? To understand how such a body part works, how messages are transmitted, how are memories stored etc. Psychologists will be able to study why some mental conditions occur and which part of the brain is affected. The human brain is the most used part of the body but very little is known about it and bridging this gap, is a key job of supercomputers.

Space

The final frontier and perhaps the last remaining region which remains semi-unexplored by man. Supercomputers are used to:

  • Modeling the path and behavior of various celestial objects and bodies in space.
  • Rendering the Sun, its functioning and its impact on the Earth.
  • Supercomputers can simulate supernova explosions, that occur in deep space and are out of monitoring reach.
  • Simulation of how the Universe was created, by recreating and rendering the Big Bang event as well as how stars, dark matter and other space entities are formed.

Climate

“As unpredictable as weather”, is a common phrase but what if you could predict the weather? Or at least, identify warning signs and premature indicators? Supercomputers once again come to the rescue by rendering models and simulations of climatic conditions as well as arranging numbers and data into useful statistics and graphs. Predicting the changes and fluctuations in weather patterns is possible through supercomputers. Cloud coverage and migration, analysis of the previous season’s weather and comparison with the current situation, estimating the intensity and coverage of sunlight on Earth, analyzing the effect of pollutants on the atmosphere and weather and predicting ocean currents and temperature are just a few areas, that are explored and examined by supercomputers. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration uses IBM manufactured supercomputers to aid in weather forecasting.

Natural Disasters

The deadly impact of natural calamities can be estimated and calculated in advance, to minimize damage. To a certain extent, supercomputers can predict the path or route of hurricanes, tornadoes and storms or tsunamis. This helps in carrying out evacuations and strong-holding key resources. Seismic activity detection and calculating the possible paths of seismic waves can help in planning and learning how to handle such calamities.

Research

►Supercomputers are used in solving complex equations such as in quantum physics and mechanics.
►With military aircraft and machinery, supercomputers can simulate aerodynamics at work and model flight patterns to aid in the development of better machinery.
►Nuclear research needs testing but instead of live detonations, supercomputers can help simulate nuclear explosions and reactions, that help advance the reach of nuclear technology.
►Proteins are a very important biological component and their molecular structure is 3-dimensional in orientation. One fold or overlap of a molecular strand and the protein’s working or function in the body can change. Diseases such as Alzheimer’s and cystic fibrosis are linked to such folding of proteins, so understanding the nature of defective proteins and how normal proteins fold, is the key to learning why such diseases occur and how to cure them. Simulation of the folding operation of proteins is a very complex and computation filled task, once again a job for supercomputers.
►The flow of blood, its path and journey, speed and various difficulties that could occur, can be simulated with rendering done by a supercomputer. This is again of great medical use, as blood functioning in those blood disorders and illnesses can be compared with regular blood functioning to understand the complete spectrum of difference.
►Supercomputers also aid research and studies in the field of fluid dynamics or deep inside the Earth’s core exploration. They can also create complex animated models of molecular structures of various chemical and biological compounds and crystals.